Thursday, March 26, 2020

due 4/17 The War In the Pacific: Through the Lens of Photojournalism

The War In the Pacific: Through the Lens of Photojournalism 

 The Americans Chapter 17 

"USS Shaw(ddd-373) exploding during the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor."
"USS Shaw (DD-373) exploding during the JapaneJapanese raid on Pearl Harbor." 
By an unknown photographer, December 7, 1941
National Archives and Records Administration, General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947 
The raid on Pearl Harbor destroyed the bulk of the U.S. fleet. After Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. joined the war.

Marines Raise Second Flag On Iwo Jima
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima is a historic photograph taken on February 23, 1945, by Joe Rosenthal.

On February  19, 1945, the war in Europe was drawing to an end, however in the Pacific one of the fiercest World War II battle's began. The island was desolate although heavily guarded with nearly 30,000 Japanese troops entrenched in tunnels. On that day 70,000 marines converged on the tiny island. Four days later they had captured Mount Suribachi, the island's highest landmark, and six marines were sent to place a large American flag atop of the hill. Joe Rosenthal captured the image which would in the thoughts of many Americans , replace the image of the gloomy, blurred photos of Pearl Harbor going up in smoke and flames.

Directions: After viewing the images of the attack at Pearl Harbor (1941) and "Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima" (1945), read, and post your answers to the following questions:
1. What action is taking place in the Bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941? Imagine you are  in the year 1941 when the event took place. What adjectives would describe your emotions related to the event? How would you feel about your country during this time?
2. Describe the character and setting of the "Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima." What human qualities of events do you think Rosenthal's 1945 photograph symbolizes? Describe  your emotions related to the event after viewing the picture? What thoughts would you have regarding your country?
3. Explain what the cause of the bombing of Pearl Harbor was and what affect did it have on the war?
5. Why were the Pacific Islands considered desirable and valuable to capture and govern during World War II?

8.3 due 4/3 Battle of the Bulge: Hitler's Last Gamble

Battle of the Bulge: Hitler's Last Gamble

Battle of the Bulge - Definition, Dates & Who Won - HISTORY

Directions: Watch the following clips. Answer the questions below. Post your answers.

Still curious? Learn more about the mindset of the German Nazi Army and the response of the American forces as told by actual veterans and historians of the battle through this informative video: 

Answer and post the following questions: 
1. Explain why the Battle of the Bulge is considered the last major offensive of the Nazi Army. 
2. Explain the strategy the Germans used related to the season, weather and terrain to gain superiority in the offensive of the Battle of the Bulge?
3. Why was it so important for the Nazi Army to win during this late stage of the war?
4. Describe how the Battle of the Bulge and the participation of the American Army hindered the Nazi attempt to overtake all of Europe.

8.1 and 8.2 due 3/31 Word War II and the Economy: Combating Wartime Inflation

Word War II and the Economy: Combating Wartime Inflation

Dr. Seuss's World War II Political Propaganda Cartoons | Brain Pickings:

dividing bar

War Bonds for the War Effort

War is expensive. World War II was very expensive. The United States spent more than $300 billion fighting the Axis Powers and supplying our Allies—that equals more than $4 trillion today! To help fund this effort, the government turned to ordinary Americans. The United States Treasury offered Americans a series of War Bonds they could purchase during the war. A War Bond was both an investment in one’s country and an investment in one’s own financial future. Here’s how it worked:
You could purchase a $25 War Bond for $18.75. The government would take that money to help pay for tanks, planes, ships, uniforms, weapons, medicine, food, and everything else the military needed to fight and win. That’s the investment in your country. Ten years from the time you purchased your War Bond you could redeem it and get $25. That’s the investment you made in your own financial future. Now, $6.25 may not sound like a lot, but most Americans bought more than just $18.75 worth of War Bonds.
Everywhere they went Americans were encouraged to help support the war effort by purchasing War Bonds. Posters picturing Uncle Sam or a soldier on the battlefield implored people to do they part. Celebrities like Bob Hope, Frank Sinatra, Bette Davis, and Marlene Dietrich, traveled the country putting on live shows or radio programs promoting War Bond sales. Children did their part, too, purchasing .25¢ War Stamps to paste into War Bond booklets. Schools held their own War Bond drives and students would bring in nickels, dimes, and quarters to see if their school could out-raise other schools. Even Superman, Batman, Bugs Bunny, and other cartoon characters got into the spirit, reminding young people that “we’re all in this together.”
Downloaded from: (Feb. 2, 2017)


  • Search for an image of a World War II War Bond Poster
  • Select a poster that appeals to you. Copy the link of the War Bonds Poster and share it in your post.
  • Describe in  at least 200 words or more: 
1.) The significance of War Bonds during World War II include how both the title of the poster and the image depicted in the poster would summon citizens to participate in the purchase of war bonds and benefit the war effort.
2.) Describe how the War Bonds were intended to impact the economy as well as the impart a social message regarding the war. 

......Still curious? then check out this WW2 online museum WW2 Museum 

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

7.2 and 7.3 World War Looms: Isolationism and Dictators, Due 3/13

World War Looms: Isolationism and Dictators

1930s Isolationism

U.S. Marines in the Caribbean, 1913
Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy" was instituted to foster good relations from other countries within the same hemisphere. As a result, Marines stationed in the Caribbean — like those seen here — were withdrawn.

"Leave me alone," seemed to be America's attitude toward the rest of the world in the 1930s.

Franklin D. Roosevelt: Foreign Affairs

Confronting Germany and Japan

FDR kept a wary eye on events unfolding in Europe and Asia during the mid-1930s, especially the increasingly bellicose behavior of Japan, Germany, and Italy. Roosevelt wanted to curb Japan's growing power in Asia by supporting China, although this policy had strict limits. Previously, the Hoover administration had acquiesced in Japan's flagrant occupation in late 1931 of Manchuria, a Chinese territory, rich in minerals, and the Roosevelt Administration proved no more willing in the intervening years to actively oppose Japanese aggression. Instead, like Hoover before him, Roosevelt merely refused to recognize Japanese control of Manchuria. Likewise, Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 provoked no significant response from the United States. To be sure, Ethiopia's dismemberment failed to spur Britain or France to action, either.

The leaders of Japan and Germany surely noted the democracies' failure to respond to aggression in Manchuria and Ethiopia. In Japan, a militarist and expansionist government, still smarting from what it perceived as shabby treatment in the aftermath of the Great War, eyed regional domination. Japan's developing grand strategy involved gaining access to the oil and other raw materials of East Asia and establishing a colonial empire, or what Japanese leaders in 1938 called a "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere." In Germany, Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, blaming old enemies and Jews for his country's woes. Hitler spoke menacingly of the German people's need for more living space ("Lebensraum") and his belief in the superiority of the Aryan race. He also flagrantly announced that Germany would begin to re-arm itself, repudiating disarmament agreements it had signed in the 1920s.
In this ominous environment, the United States adopted an official policy of neutrality. Indeed, between 1935 and 1939, Congress passed five different Neutrality Acts that forbade American involvement in foreign conflicts. The impetus for these laws came from a revitalized American peace movement, the revelations of war-profiteering by American munitions businesses during the Great War, and a widespread belief among Americans that their intervention in the European war had been fruitless. Roosevelt tried to water down these laws—which often made no distinction between the aggressor and the victim—to mixed success. And while he often talked a tough game, especially in his famous Chicago speech of 1937 which warned of the need to "quarantine" aggressors, the President more often than not proved unwilling to buck isolationist sentiment.
Unsurprisingly, then, the United States stood idle as Europe moved closer to war. In 1936, a civil war in Spain erupted, pitting the Republican Spanish government against the fascist forces of Generalissimo Francisco Franco. Franco received support from Germany and Italy, while England, France, and the United States—citing their desire to keep the Spanish conflict from becoming a second world war—ignored the Republican forces' calls for aid. Franco emerged victorious in 1939.

Descent into War

Hitler began his ruinous conquest of Europe in 1936, marching his troops into the Rhineland, a demilitarized zone that bordered France, Belgium, and Germany. In late 1936, Germany allied with Italy and Japan; it annexed Austria two years later. As Hitler eyed the Sudetenland (a part of Czechoslovakia), France and Britain, who feared a continent-wide conflict, met with Hitler at Munich and struck what they thought was a peace-saving bargain: they would accede to Hitler's conquest of the Sudetenland in exchange for his agreement not to pursue more territory. The deal was struck without the participation of the Czechs—and with the approval of FDR.
Six months later, Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia, in outright defiance of the Munich agreement. It was clear that Hitler's next target was Poland, and Britain and France pledged themselves to its defense. In a masterful diplomatic move, Hitler concluded a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union in late August 1939, removing an adversary to his east. On September 1, 1939, German forces invaded Poland. Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany. World War II had begun.
In the Spring of 1940, Hitler turned his attentions towards Western Europe, invading and conquering Denmark, Holland, Belgium, Norway, and France. Nazi Germany (along with its allies Italy and the Soviet Union) now controlled all of continental Europe. Only Britain remained free of the Nazi yoke. In the summer of 1940, Hitler began a massive air war against England to soften its defenses in preparation for a full-scale invasion of the British Isles.
Roosevelt's sympathies clearly lay with the British and French, but he was hamstrung by the Neutrality Acts and a strong isolationist bloc in American politics. Upon the outbreak hostilities in September 1939, FDR re-asserted American neutrality, noting, however, that he could not "ask that every American remain neutral in thought as well." He did his best, then, to nudge the United States towards supporting Great Britain, supplying that nation with all aid "short of war." This strategy had three main effects. First, it offered Britain both psychological encouragement and materiel aid, though often more of the former than the latter. Second, it bought the United States time to shore up its military preparedness, which was inadequate for a world war. Finally, it made the United States an active, if undeclared, participant in the war.
In the fall of 1939, FDR won a slight revision of the Neutrality Act, which now allowed belligerents to buy arms in the United States, but only with cash and only if they transported their purchases themselves, a provision called "cash and carry." Nearly one year later, the United States and Great Britain struck a deal in which the Americans loaned the British fifty mothballed destroyers in return for the use of eight British military bases. And in March 1941, FDR won enactment of a Lend-Lease program that allowed the British and other allies continued access to American arms and supplies despite their rapidly deteriorating financial situation. The huge sum of $7 billion that Congress appropriated would eventually reach more than $50 billion.
The war took a vital turn that same year. After failing to subdue the British through the air—the so-called "Battle of Britain" in which the Royal Air Force emerged victorious over the German Luftwaffe—Hitler made two fateful decisions. First, he launched a massive invasion of his former ally, the Soviet Union. Second, he tried to conquer the British by choking that island nation from the sea, ordering Nazi submarines to attack British shipping in the North Atlantic. The two decisions only drew the United States more deeply into the war. FDR extended lend-lease aid to the Soviets. More important, he ordered the American Navy to the North Atlantic first to "patrol" that region and then to "escort" British ships. This latter order allowed the Navy to fire on German subs at sight. By the fall of 1941, Germany and the United States were at war in all but name.
Roosevelt's leadership during this period was crucial, although far from flawless. He and British prime minister Winston Churchill formed an effective team, and crafted a joint statement of their nations' war goals, called the "Atlantic Charter," in August 1941. This cooperation extended to both leaders' subordinates, who began planning in earnest for the coming war. At home, FDR managed to quiet the isolationist howls that greeted his "short of war" strategy and to further the process of rebuilding and re-arming America's military.
Still, FDR rarely staked out policy positions which committed the nation to a clear course of action. Roosevelt's actions essentially placed the United States at war but FDR refused to acknowledge the danger, often responding with evasive answers to press queries about the difference between the nation being "short of war" and at war. Finally, FDR often proved a confusing, frustrating, and spotty administrator as he directed the nation's military and industrial preparations for war. Prominent members of his cabinet and staff found all these failures exasperating.
The immense challenges that Roosevelt faced in the European conflict were compounded by the worsening situation in Asia, and particularly by the downturn in U.S.-Japanese relations. In 1937, that relationship deteriorated further after Japan attacked China, a nation to which a number of Americans had a strong attachment. FDR offered aid to China, although the neutrality laws and the power of the isolationist bloc in American politics ensured that such assistance remain extremely limited. Instead, FDR's strategy, in concert with other Western nations, was to contain and isolate Japan economically and politically. If he could keep the "Japanese dog"—as Churchill referred to Japan—at bay, FDR reasoned that he could deal with what he saw as the more pressing German problem. In practical terms, FDR also realized how difficult it would be for the United States to prepare for—much less to fight—wars simultaneously in Asia and Europe.
The strategy turned out to have significant drawbacks. By isolating Japan, the United States and its allies exacerbated Japan's fears of being denied access to the resources it needed to prosecute further its war in China. By the summer of 1941, Japan's leaders felt increasingly hemmed in by a coalition of America, Britain, China, and the Dutch (the ABCD powers) and adopted overtly aggressive foreign and military policies.
Japan invaded southern Indochina in the summer of 1941 to secure industrial supplies it deemed necessary to maintain its empire and military advantage. The Roosevelt administration responded by freezing Japan's assets in the United States, and restricting its access to petroleum products. Japanese leaders were both furious and even more convinced that the United States imperiled their national interest. Roosevelt and his advisers, meanwhile, girded for war.
War came, but in a most unexpected fashion. On December 7, 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack against the United States at Pearl Harbor naval base in Hawaii, America's vital outpost in the Pacific. The attack greatly damaged, but did not devastate, America's Pacific fleet, whose aircraft carriers were at sea. Congress declared war on Japan on December 8; three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States, which the U.S. Congress acknowledged in a resolution accepting the state of war. By December 1941, the United States had finally entered the war—now a true world war—as a participant, following several years as an interested and active bystander. The country would never be the same. 
Article Source: Downloaded on 2/19/2015 from The Miller Center for the complete article please visit the Miller Center website

Directions: Answer questions 1-6
  1.  Why did American's turn to isolationism in the the 1930's?
  1.  How would you accurately describe Franklin D. Roosevelt's policies toward joining the war and helping fight Germany?
  1. Dictators in the 1930's threatened world peace. Explain the economic factors of the time period that created  an opportunity for dictatorships to take over the four countries listed below Name the Dictators who lead the following countries in the 1930's: - 

  • Germany

  •  Italy
  • Spain
  • Japan
 4.  At the start of World War II, which country was Hitler's first target? and Why?

5. Describe the what actions where undertaken by France and Britain in an effort to maintain a policy of appeasement?

6.  How were Britain and France drawn into the war with Germany?

Monday, February 24, 2020

7.1 The Dust Bowl

The 1920's and the Great Depression: Hardship and Suffering during the Depression

Directions: After reading the article, answer the following questions. Post your answer. 

The Dust Bowl 
Dust Storm Lamar Colorado
The most visible evidence of how dry the 1930's became was the dust storm. Tons of topsoil were blown off barren fields and carried in storm clouds for hundreds of miles. Technically, the driest region of the Plains – southeastern Colorado, southwest Kansas and the panhandles of Oklahoma and Texas – became known as the Dust Bowl, and many dust storms started there. But the entire region, and eventually the entire country, was affected.
The Dust Bowl got its name after Black Sunday, April 14, 1935. More and more dust storms had been blowing up in the years leading up to that day. In 1932, 14 dust storms were recorded on the Plains. In 1933, there were 38 storms. By 1934, it was estimated that 100 million acres of farmland had lost all or most of the topsoil to the winds. By April 1935, there had been weeks of dust storms, but the cloud that appeared on the horizon that Sunday was the worst. Winds were clocked at 60 mph. Then it hit.
"The impact is like a shovelful of fine sand flung against the face," Avis D. Carlson wrote in a New Republic article. "People caught in their own yards grope for the doorstep. Cars come to a standstill, for no light in the world can penetrate that swirling murk... We live with the dust, eat it, sleep with it, watch it strip us of possessions and the hope of possessions. It is becoming Real."
The day after Black Sunday, an Associated Press reporter used the term "Dust Bowl" for the first time. "Three little words achingly familiar on the Western farmer's tongue, rule life in the dust bowl of the continent – if it rains." The term stuck and was used by radio reporters and writers, in private letters and public speeches.
In the central and northern plains, dust was everywhere.
Article Source: (Jan 27, 2015)
During World War I about one million acres of grassland in western Nebraska, better suited to grazing than to crops, was plowed under and planted. In the 1920s farmers were so desperate to increase income that they over plowed, over planted, and over grazed the land on the Great Plains.
Then in the 1930s, drought, heat, wind and low agriculture prices combined to cause disaster. The federal government responded with a variety of programs that encouraged Great Plains farmers to use soil conservation methods that would help conserve soil fertility and stop erosion. People who rented the acreage they farmed didn't want to invest in land that wasn't theirs. And times were so bad during the Great Depression that some landowners couldn't afford to use soil conservation methods that might not pay for several years.
Federal agricultural programs launched during the 1930s changed how and what Nebraska farmers planted by paying them to plant certain crops or paying them not to produce a crop at all – letting the land lie idle (fallow). LeRoy Hankel says Roosevelt's farm programs "helped us get back on our feet... When I came to York, this one time they was giving us about $50 or $60 on 80 acres" to leave a little ground idle. "I stood in line for an hour or two to get $50-some dollars payment. And that's the way it started."
Other government programs encouraged farmers to rotate crops and renew soil nutrients, to follow the contour of the land when plowing, to terrace sloping land to prevent erosion, and to plant rows of trees in "shelter belts" to slow wind erosion. By the late 1930s, the conservation began paying off. Rainfall started to return to normal. Farmers started planting hybrid seeds, and crop yields began to rise.Then & Now
Today, conservation techniques and equipment have advanced to the point that many farmers plant right through last year's crop stubble. "No till" techniques leave crop residue on the field to preserve moisture and protect the soil from wind erosion until the next crop can sprout and push up through. The stubble will also decompose, providing partial nutrients for the new plants.
Written by Claudia Reinhardt and Bill Ganzel, the Ganzel Group. First written and published in 2003.

Directions: After reading the article answer the following questions. 

1. During the 1930's what region became known as the Dust Bowl and what caused the Dust Bowl? 

2. How did the Dust Bowl impact farmers economically  in the region? 

3. Decribe how the demographics of the region changed during the time period of the Dust Bowl and how the population in surrounding states where impacted. 

4. Explain the role of conservation as the government strove to ameliorate the disaster.  

6.3-6.4 The Great Depression - The New Deal

The Great Depression - The New Deal

Directions: Read the following article. Answer the questions below. Post your answers. Comment on another classmate's post. 

Downloaded from

The New Deal

President Roosevelt signs the Banking Bill
Within days of his inauguration, President Roosevelt presented the Emergency Banking Act to Congress, which quickly approved the legislation. Here, Roosevelt signs the bill, making it law.
When America hit rock bottom, Americans expected bold leadership.
Herbert Hoover was perceived as doing nothing to help when the nation was in its darkest hour. When the votes were tallied in 1932, Americans made a strong statement for change, and sent Franklin D. Roosevelt to the White House. Ironically, Roosevelt made few concrete proposals during the campaign, merely promising "a new deal for the American people." The plan that ultimately emerged during his Presidency was among the most ambitious in the history of the United States.
WPA program, 1936
With the unemployment rate at an incredible 25%, FDR realized that jobs were needed to get people back on their feet. A few of the 8,500,000 participants in the New Deal's Works Progress Administration are shown here hard at work in Tuskeegee, Alabama.
FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT was born in 1882 to a wealthy New York industrialist. The fifth cousin of THEODORE ROOSEVELT, FDR became involved in politics at a young age. A strong supporter of WOODROW WILSON and the LEAGUE OF NATIONS, Roosevelt became the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Vice-President in 1920. The following year he contracted polio, and learned that he could never walk without crutches again.
Roosevelt campaigned hard for fellow New Yorker AL SMITH's 1924 and 1928 Presidential bids and then received Smith's support to run for governor of New York. In his two terms as governor of New York, Roosevelt earned a reputation as a progressive reformer. He then threw his hat into the ring of Presidential politics.
Radio advertisement
Radio's golden era coincided with Roosevelt's presidency. Radio shows entertained, advertised, and made an escape for American audiences. Roosevelt wisely used his weekly "Fireside Chats" to keep in touch with the populace.
Roosevelt had no grand strategy to fix the Depression. He was a bold experimenter. FDR liked to examine an idea and evaluate it on its philosophical merits. The details could be negotiated later. If it worked, fine. If not, he was more than willing to start over with a new plan. He surrounded himself with competent advisors, and delegated authority with discretion and confidence. As a master of the radio, his confidence was contagious among the American populace.
Before his first term expired, Roosevelt signed legislation aimed at fixing banks and the stock market. He approved plans to aid the unemployed and the nations farmers. He began housing initiatives and ventures into public-owned electric power. New Deal programs aided industrialists and laborers alike. His friends and enemies grew with every act he signed into law.
The NEW DEAL sparked a revolution in American public thought regarding the relationship between the people and the federal government.
TITLE OF PROGRAMU.S. History Online Textbook
DATE OF ACCESSThursday, February 02, 2017


What economic event preceded FDR's election as President of the United States and what did he set out to improve in the American economy and society.  

Describe at least three of the legislation signed by FDR as part of the New Deal.

Research what type of programs were created to put people Back to Work. Name and describe 3 such programs.

What programs started during the New Deal are still functioning today and how do they continue to impact the American society and economy?

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

6.1 and 6.2 due 2/7 The Stock Market Bubble

The 1920's and Causes of the Stock Market Crash: The Bubble...


Americans Speculate and Buy Stocks on Credit;

America experienced an era of great peace and prosperity during the 1920s. After World War I, the so-called “Roaring Twenties” economic and cultural boom was fueled by industrialization and the popularization of new technologies such as radio and the automobile. Air flight was becoming common as well.
Stock Market Crash of 1929 ChartThe Dow stock average soared throughout the Roaring Twenties and many investors aggressively purchased shares, comforted by the fact that stocks were thought to be extremely safe by most economists due to the country’s powerful economic boom. Investors soon purchased stocks on margin, which is the borrowing of stock for the purpose of gaining financial leverage. For every dollar invested, a margin user would borrow nine dollars worth of stock. The use of leverage meant that if a stock went up 1%, the investor would make 10%. Unfortunately, leverage also works the other way around and amplifies even minor losses. If a stock drops too much, a margin holder could lose all of their investment and possibly owe money to their broker as well.
From 1921 to 1929, the Dow Jones rocketed from 60 to 400, creating many new millionaires. Very soon, stock trading became America’s favorite pastime as investors jockeyed to make a quick killing. Investors mortgaged their homes and foolishly invested their life savings into hot stocks such as Ford and RCA. To the average investor, stocks were practically a sure thing. Few people actually studied the finances and underlying businesses of the companies that they invested in. Thousands of fraudulent companies were formed to hoodwink unsavvy investors. Most investors never even thought a crash was possible – in their minds, the stock market “always went up.”
By Jesse Colombo

Directions: Answer the following questions:

  1. How did Americans get financial backing to purchase stocks in the 1920's? 
  2. Why did those who invested in the Stock Market believe the stock prices would go up?
  3. What does it mean that people invested in stocks on margin?
  4. Do people still use margin, if so how?