Tuesday, October 17, 2017

Month 2 week 4- Review of Ch 2 -Federalist and Anti-Federalists

Dear Parkview History Students, 
Although you will have already studied chapter 2.4 pg. 75 - 79, and the Living Constitution pg. 82-105 in your U.S. History book The Americans Reconstruction to the 21st Century by McDougal Littell,  some of the concepts are covered again in this post due to their importance.
Mrs. Bernstein

Directions: Audio learners, listen and watch the video posted below. Next, read the background essay below. Complete the comprehension questions and post your answers. 

The Role of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists in the Establishment of the Constitution 

U.S. History is the story of the men and women who came to the Americas and sought a better life. They had the ingenuity and the opportunity to create a system of rules and laws with with which to rule themselves to maintain their freedoms and well being. This process is what the first part of your history book is consumed with conveying to you. As a child you learned about who and what were the pilgrims, colonists, continental army, redcoats, founding fathers, and presidents to name a few. Now as a teenager you are required to  learn about the thought process and reasoning that drove such historical figures. You are even asked now to examine their moral decisions and philosophical foundations and judge for yourselves the effectiveness of their choices. Before you can analyze the rules and laws they created to govern themselves with, you must understand what they were thinking. You must be able to explain the terms Federalist and Anti-Federalists. These two groups wrestled to balance individual rights and federal rights as they wrote and ratified our Constitution and Bill of Rights.  


Why a Bill of Rights? What Impact Does it Have?

     While the Founders were in broad agreement that the responsibility of government is to protect liberty, when they began to create a new government they often disagreed about the best ways to accomplish that task. The Bill of Rights was created through the kind of debate and exchange of ideas that it still protects today. 
     The Declaration of Independence states that the purpose of government is to protect our basic natural or inalienable rights. The Founders all agreed with this principle. But if they created a great system to protect rights, why did they disagree about a bill of rights? 

Who Were the Federalists and Anti-Federalists? 

    The Constitutional Convention prompted the emergence of two groups—the Federalists and the AntiFederalists. Both the Federalists and Anti-Federalists wanted to have checks on the power of the government, but they did not agree on how to do so. The Anti-Federalists wanted to change the Articles of Confederation, while the Federalists sought to create a new Constitution with a more centralized government. 
   The Federalists wanted to limit the power of states. The Federalists explained that the Constitution would create a central government that would be separated into three branches. They believed that the branches would compete against one another and keep each other from becoming too powerful. 
     The states would then check these branches in order to keep the national government from growing too powerful. The Anti-Federalists disagreed. Many Anti-Federalists worried that giving too much power to a central government would limit citizens’ rights. They believed that power should stay with state governments because the states would better understand their citizens’ needs.
     Even after the Constitution was written, Federalists and Anti-Federalists disagreed during its ratification. Federalists supported the Constitution as it was written and did not think a bill of rights was needed. They believed the Constitution limited the government’s powers enough. They also feared that creating a list of rights might lead to other dangers. For example, people might think the government had more power than it had actually been granted. It would be impossible to list every right; Federalists did not want certain rights to be ignored or violated just because they were not listed. 
     Anti-Federalists believed that a bill of rights was needed to prevent the central government from taking rights from states and citizens. They wanted to protect against a central government that was too powerful and could take away the freedoms they had fought a revolution to preserve. They believed a bill of rights was needed so that citizens would be protected from the government infringing upon [ignoring or taking] their rights. 

How Was the Debate Resolved? 

     The Constitutional Convention ended in late 1787, but the debate went on. Nine states ratified the Constitution by the summer of 1788. However, New York, Virginia, and Massachusetts sent long lists of amendments they wanted in order to make sure peoples’ rights were protected. The people wanted a bill of rights. James Madison asked other Founders—Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, George Mason, and President George Washington—for advice. They all supported a bill of rights. Mason, who had written the Virginia Declaration of Rights to protect the rights of Virginians, suggested using state bills of rights as a guide. Madison agreed to add a bill of rights and used Mason’s Virginia Declaration of Rights as a model. 
     Though Madison first suggested additions and changes to the original text of the Constitution, AntiFederalists objected, saying that Congress did not have the power to change the original form of the Constitution that had been ratified by the states. They decided the Amendments would be added as a separate list. On August 24, 1789, the House of Representatives sent a list of seventeen amendments to the Senate. The Senate approved twelve. Those twelve amendments were sent to the states for ratification, but only ten were ratified [approved]. On December 15, 1791, Virginia’s state convention became the last state needed to ratify the ten amendments that protected individual rights and states’ powers. These ten amendments, the Bill of Rights, joined the Constitution as the governing document of the United States. 

What Is the Impact of the Bill of Rights? 

     The Bill of Rights only limited actions taken by the federal government against people. The Founders thought citizens would be protected against state governments by their home states’ constitutions. For this reason, the Bill of Rights did not strongly affect Americans’ lives until the Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868. The Fourteenth Amendment prohibits the states from violating people’s lives, liberty, or property without due process. 
     Beginning in the 1920s, the Supreme Court began to apply the Bill of Rights to states to meet the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of “liberty.” Over time, the Supreme Court has ruled that most of the protections of the Bill of Rights apply as limits on state and local governments through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. 
     Prior to the twentieth century, the role of the federal government was more limited. In the last hundred years, however, the role of the federal government has grown. As a result of the federal government’s bigger role, its size and importance have changed. The change also affected the understanding of the Bill of Rights. The document that had not affected Americans’ lives often prior to the 1920s now took center stage in American society, politics, and conversation. 
     The Bill of Rights, much debated at the time of writing, still brings about questions and debate today. 
Preserving the Bill of Rights © THE BILL OF RIGHTS INSTITUTE 

Comprehension Questions:

  1. List 3 positions of the Federalist 
  2. List 3 postitions of the anti-federalists.
  3. Explain why Federalists thought a bill of rights was not needed and could even be dangerous?
  4. Why did Antifederalists oppose ratifying the Constituition? 
  5. Why did the Bill of Rights not strongly affect citizens’ lives until after 1920s? 
downloaded from: https://voicesofhistory.org/preserving-the-bill-of-rights/bill-rights-impact/

Monday, October 9, 2017

Fires in Anaheim Hills - Monday 10/9/17

Parkview Students,

As independent study students, you reside in various cities in Orange County. There maybe some of you who live near the fire in Anaheim Hills. Please know I am praying for you and your safety. If you need help, prayers or have a word of encouragement, please post to your classmates!

Mrs. Bernstein

2.3 The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment

Directions:Watch the following video about the Enlightenment: Respond to the following questions. Post your responses.



  1. What was the significance of the Enlightenment?
  2. How did it pertain to Democracy?
  3. Describe "natural rights."
  4. According to the Enlightenment philosopher John Locke, if a government doesn't protect people's "natural rights," then what do the people have a right to?
  5. What is your opinion about the Enlightenment? 
  6. Please read and post on 1 student's post.

Monday, October 2, 2017

Month 2.2 The Role of the Puritans

Religion and the role it played in shaping our nation: The Role of the Puritans

[Puritans going to church]

Early settlers to the Americas brought with them their dreams and desires for a new life. Often at the core of their motivation for starting a new life in the new world was their faith and their interpretation of how one might live as regulated by their interpretation of the Bible.

Of importance and interest to the formation of early american culture and government is the role of the Puritans played.

Directions:  Go to The History Chanel  The Life of the Puritans watch, listen and learn. Answer the following questions and post your response.

  • Describe the contributions of the puritans to American work ethic and family centered communities.
  • Explain the role the Puritan's attitudes and views played that led them to strive for a "moral society."
  • Explain why the concept of "religious tolerance" not a view the Puritan's would have striven for.

Monday, September 25, 2017

Study Guide Chapters 1-13 U.S. History

Gearing Up For Your U.S. History Midterm:

Save the date for midterms/final 
The early bird gets the worm.....

U.S. History  Midterm Study Guide

  • Turn in the completed study guide and online chapter quizzes before the midterm to earn 10 extra credit points. (the quizzes will help you master and review the material)
  • The test has 40 Multiple choice questions

                               Text: The Americans, published by McDougal Littel


Chapter 1 – Exploration and the Colonial Era
Section 1
Identify the different cultures that have interacted to help create the present-day culture of the United States.
Section 2
Explain the impact of Spanish exploration on Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans.
Section 3
Describe the goals of the English settlement at Jamestown.
Identify the motives that led Puritans to New England and the colonies they founded.
Explain the economic relationship between England and its North American colonies.
Section 4
Explain the influence of Enlightenment thinkers on the founding fathers.
Explain the influence of the Great Awakening on the colonists.
Explain the cause of the French and Indian War and the consequences of the war for the French and British.

Chapter 2 – Revolution and the Early Republic
Section 1
Summarize the ideas behind the American Revolution.
Explain the influence of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense.
Explain the reasons for which the colonists declared independence and identify the Enlightenment thinkers/ideas that influence the Declaration of Independence.
Section 2
Identify the factors that helped the colonists to win the war.
Describe the symbolic value of the Revolution.
Section 3
Describe the political and economic problems faced by the Confederation.
Explain the conflicts and compromise reached in creating the new Constitution.
Describe the form of government established by the Constitution.
Explain the debates over the ratification of the Constitution.
Explain the Bill of Rights and why they were added.
Section 4
Identify key steps taken in creating a new government.
Describe the differing political views that emerged in the new government.
Identify challenges faced by the new government.

Chapter 3 – The Growth of a Young Nation
Section 1
Explain how Thomas Jefferson simplified the government.
Explain judicial review and identify the Supreme Court case/chief justice that established judicial review.
Explain the importance of the Louisiana Purchase.
Explain the causes and consequences of the War of 1812.
Summarize the ways in which nationalism shaped American foreign policy.
Section 2
Describe the regional economic differences in the early United States.
Summarize tensions between national and sectional interests.
Explain how Jackson helped to expand democracy and change politics.
Describe the causes and consequences of the Nullification Crisis.
Describe Jackson’s opposition to the National Bank.
Section 3
Summarize the reasons settlers headed west.
Describe Texas settlement, struggle for independence, and annexation.
Explain the causes and consequences of the War with Mexico.
Section 4
Describe the impact of new markets, entrepreneurs, and inventions on the 19th century American economy.
Explain the ways in which workplaces changed during the market revolution.
Summarize the efforts of workers to improve their economic security.
Section 5
Describe the spiritual awakening movements that inspired reform movements.
Describe the abolitionist movement.
Describe the role that women played in 19th century reform movements.

Chapter 4 – The Union in Peril
Section 1
Explain how California’s request for statehood caused a crisis, and how the Compromise of 1850 settled it.
Describe the operation of the Underground Railroad and other forms of protest against slavery.
Explain the political conditions that gave rise to the Republican Party and divided the Whigs.
Explain the Dred Scott decision and why it was so important in the slavery conflict.
Explain how Lincoln’s election resulted in secession.
Section 2
Identify the strengths of both sides at the beginning of the Civil War.
Identify the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation.
Explain the effect of the war on regional economies.
Section 3
Identify the political and economic changes caused by the Civil War.
Explain how the Thirteenth Amendment affected the lives of slaves.
Section 4
Describe the various Reconstruction plans and their political consequences.
Describe how Reconstruction affected life in the South for white Southerners and former slaves.
Explain the reasons for the end of Reconstruction.

Chapter 5 – Changes on the Western Frontier
Section 1
Explain why settlers continued to move westward.
Indentify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences.
Explain the Dawes Act and the goal it sought to achieve.
Explain the causes and consequences of the Battle of Wounded Knee.
Trace the development of the cattle industry.
Section 2
Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading and the transcontinental railroad.
Describe how the early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.
Section 3
Identify the problems farmers faced and their cooperative efforts to solve them.
Explain the rise and fall of the Populist Party.

Chapter 6 – A New Industrial Age
Section 1
Explain how natural resources fueled industrialization.
Explain how new inventions changed American business and people’s lives at home and work.
Section 2
Identify the positive and negative effects of railroads on the nation’s economy.
Explain the reasons why farmers were angry at railroad companies and explain the reforms that came around as a result.
Section 3
Identify management and business strategies that contributed to the success of business tycoons such as Andrew Carnegie.
Explain Social Darwinism and its effect on society.
Explain the Sherman Antitrust Act and its effectiveness.
Trace the emergence of labor unions and identify the two major types of unions that developed.
Identify the reasons for the various strikes during the late 19th century.
Explain management and government reaction to union activity.

Chapter 7 – Immigrants and Urbanization
Section 1
Identify the various countries that immigrants traveled from and their reasons for coming to the United States.
Define nativism.
Explain anti-immigration actions (Chinese Exclusion Act, Gentleman’s Agreement).
Section 2
Explain why many immigrants settled in the nation’s cities.
Explain the goals of the Americanization movement.
Explain why a number of Americans moved from rural areas to the cities.
Describe the housing problems and other difficulties that immigrants and poor residents encountered.
Describe the Social gospel movement and the help that reformers offered.
Section 3
Explain the role of political machines and political bosses.
Describe the means which many political machines used to maintain power, including the actions of the Tweed Ring.
Describe the consequences of the patronage system and identify reforms made by Presidents Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur.
Explain the positions taken by presidents Cleveland, Harrison, and McKinley on the tariff issue.

Chapter 8 – Science and Urban Life
Section 1
Describe how engineering innovations and urban planning helped improve city life at the turn-of-the-20th century.
Explain the effect of new technologies on communication and transportation.
Section 2
Explain the reasons for the expansion and improvement of public education.
Explain how educational experiences differed for African-Americans and immigrants.
Section 3
Describe the voting restrictions and Jim Crow laws that restricted the rights of African-Americans in the south.
Explain the significance of the Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson.
Summarize turn-of-the-20th-century race relations in the North and the South.
Identify discrimination against minorities in the American West.
Section 4
Describe turn-of-the-20th-century mass culture, including leisure activities, newspapers, fine arts, and literature.
Describe innovations in marketing and advertising.

Chapter 9 – The Progressive Era
Section 1
Explain the four goals of progressivism.
Identify efforts to clean up government, protect workers, and reform elections.
Explain the role of muckrakers.
Section 2
Describe the growing presence of women in the workplace at the turn of the 20th century.
Identify leaders of the woman suffrage movement.
Explain the strategies of the woman suffrage movement.
Section 3
Explain how Roosevelt used the power of the presidency to regulate business.
Identify laws passed to protect public health and the environment.
Summarize Roosevelt’s stand on civil rights.
Section 4
Summarize the events of the Taft presidency.
Explain the division in the Republican Party.
Section 5
Explain the two key antitrust measures, the Clayton Antitrust Act and the Federal Trade commission Act.
Explain how the lowering of the tariff and the introduction of the income tax were related.
Identify the provisions of the Sixteenth Amendment.
Describe Wilson’s banking reforms.
Explain how women finally won the vote.
Identify the 19th Amendment.
Explain the limits of Wilson’s progressivism.

Chapter 10 – America Claims an Empire
Section 1
Define imperialism.
Identify the major factors that contributed to the growth of American imperialism.
Explain how the U.S. acquired Alaska and Hawaii.
Section 2
Explain why some Americans supported Spanish control of Cuba and why others sympathized with the rebels.
Describe the factors that escalated the conflict between the United States and Spain.
Describe the consequences of the war for Spain and the U.S.
Explain why the Treaty of Paris causes debate among Americans.
Section 3
Describe U.S. involvement in Puerto Rico and the U.S.
Identify causes and effects of the Philippine-American War.
Explain the purpose of the Open Door policy in China.
Section 4
Explain the events that led to the building of the Panama Canal.
Explain the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.
Explain William Taft’s dollar diplomacy.
Explain Wilson’s “missionary diplomacy.”

Chapter 11- The First World War
Section 1
Summarize the divided U.S. public opinion about the war.
Explain why the United States entered the war.
Section 2
Describe how the United States raised an army and increased ship production during World War I.
Section 3
Explain why the War Industries Board was established.
Explain how the war affected the U.S. economy.
Explain how the government financed and built support for the war.
Describe the anti-immigrant hysteria and how the Espionage and Sedition Acts affected civil liberties.
Summarize the social changes that affected African-Americans and women.
Section 4
Summarize Wilson’s Fourteen Points and explain why the Allies rejected Wilson’s plan.
Describe the Treaty of Versailles and summarize the opposition to the treaty.
Explain how the war affected U.S. power and prestige in the world.

Chapter 12 – Politics of the Roaring Twenties
Section 1
Explain how Americans reacted to the perceived threat of communism.
Explain how anti-immigration sentiment strengthened the Ku Klux Klan’s attack on ethnic and religious minorities.
Describe the quota system and its impact.
Explain why labor conflicts increased after the war and why labor union membership declined.
Section 2
Explain Harding’s attitude towards the reforms of the Progressive Era?
Identify scandals that plagued the Harding administration.
Section 3
Describe the impact of the automobile and other new products on American life.
Explain ways in which the country’s prosperity was superficial.

Chapter 13 – The Roaring Life of the 1920s
Section 1
Describe life in the nation’s cities during the 1920s.
Explain the causes and effects of Prohibition (18th Amendment).
Describe the clash between religion and science and explain the main issue of the Scopes Trial.
Section 2
Explain the causes and effects of the changing role of women in the 1920s.
Section 3
Describe the popular culture of the 1920s.
Section 4
Explain why many African Americans migrated to Northern cities in the early 1900s.
Describe ways that African-American leaders proposed to combat discrimination and violence.
Describe the Harlem Renaissance.

Month 2.1 Please Introduce Yourself!

Parkview's U.S. History: Introductions

Directions: This class is about history. In 200-300 words write your history from your beginning to present day. Include a picture of yourself. Be sure to include:

  • your name (the history of why your name was given to you)
  • birthplace
  • 2 or 3 high points in your life
  • places you have lived
  • your favorite year and why
  • a historical American figure you admire and why

Discussion Board Directions 2017-2018

U.S. History Discussion Board

Welcome to Parkview's U.S. History Discussion Board Blog! The place to interact with the instructor and classmates to discuss important events in our nation's history. To begin our blog it is important to know the expectations and rules.

1. The instructor will post a new discussion/blog every Monday.
2. The discussion/blog will contain information and questions for you to answer.
3. Respond to the instructor's discussion/blog by Wed. at Midnight.
4. Comment on at least one student's post by Sunday.
5. Weekly participation in the discussion is expected and your participation will be reported to your teacher.