Tuesday, May 23, 2017

9,4 Study Guide Post

Your finals are on June 6th from 10:00-2:00. You may complete and submit this study guide prior to taking your final for up to 10 extra credit points. You may prepare one sheet of handwritten notes to use during the test. The final exam will give you an opportunity to show your mastery of skills that you have been practicing throughout the semester. Use this forum to study with your classmates. Review our discussion board posts. Each weekly post was intended to help you practice the skills listed on your study guide.  Complete and turn-in the attached study guide for up to 10 extra credit point the day of testing. The following are some key areas that you can expect to see on the exam

Directions: Review the study guide. Choose a chapter listed below. Select 3 sections from the chapter. Explain the 3 sections and post on the discussion board. Comment on another student's post. 


Chapter 14 – The Great Depression Begins
Section 1
Describe the causes of the stock market crash and the Great Depression.
Explain how the Great Depression affected the economy in the U.S. and throughout the world.
Section 2
Describe the effect of the Great Depression on people’s lives, including the effects of the Dust Bowl.
Section 3
Explain Hoover’s initial response to the Depression.
Summarize the actions Hoover took to help the economy and the hardship suffered by Americans.

Chapter 15 – The New Deal
Section 1
Summarize the initial steps Roosevelt took to reform banking and finance.
Describe New Deal work programs.
Describe the reaction of the Supreme Court to New Deal programs and how Roosevelt proposed to reorganize the Supreme Court.
Section 2
Describe the purpose of the Second New Deal.
Summarize the New Deal programs for farmers, youths and workers.
Section 3
Describe the New Deal coalition.
Section 4
Describe the entertainment provided by motion pictures and radio.
Section 5
Summarize the legacies of the New Deal.

Chapter 16 – World War Looms
Section 1
Describe America’s turn to isolationism in the 1930’s.
Section 2
Explain how Britain and France responded to Hitler’s expansions.
Summarize the first battles of World War II.
Section 3
Summarize the Nazi’s persecution of the Jews and their “final solution.”
Section 4
Describe the U.S. response to the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939.
Explain how Roosevelt assisted the Allies without declaring war.
Summarize the events that brought the U.S. into armed contact with Germany.
Describe the American response to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Chapter 17 – The United States in World War II
Section 1
Explain how the U.S. expanded its armed forces and wartime production.
Summarize the efforts of the U.S. government to control the economy.
Section 2
Summarize the Allies’ plan for winning the war.
Explain the importance of D-Day and the Battle of the Bulge.
Section 3
Identify key turning points in the war of the Pacific.
Explain the development of the atomic bomb and debates about its use.
Describe the challenges faced by the Allies in rebuilding peace.
Section 4
Describe the economic and social changes that reshaped American life during World War II.
Describe the discrimination that minorities faced and the internment of Japanese Americans.

Chapter 18 – Cold War Conflicts
Section 1
Explain the growing tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union after World War II.
Explain the goals of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan.
Describe the conflicts over Germany.
Section 2
Explain the U.S. reaction to China becoming a communist country.
Summarize the events of the Korean War.
Section 3
Describe efforts to investigate the loyalty of U.S. citizens, and the tactics of Joseph McCarthy.
Summarize the spy cases of Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs.
Section 4
Explain the policy of brinkmanship.
Describe American and Soviet actions that caused the Cold War to spread around the world.
Summarize the impact of Sputnik and the U-2 incident on the United States.

Chapter 19 – The Postwar Boom
Section 1
Identify economic and social problems Americans faced after World War II.
Describe Truman’s support for civil rights.
Contrast domestic policies of Truman and Eisenhower.
Section 2
Explain how changes in business affected workers.
Describe the suburban lifestyle of the 1950s.
Identify causes and effects of the boom in the automobile industry.
Explain the increase in consumerism in the 1950s.
Section 3
Explain the effects of the growth of television.
Section 4
Explain how the white migration to the suburbs created an urban crisis.

Chapter 20 – The New Frontier and the Great Society
Section 1
Describe the new military policy of the Kennedy administration.
Summarize the crises that developed over Cuba.
Summarize the crisis over Berlin.
Section 2
Summarize the New Frontier domestic and foreign agendas.
Describe the chain of events surrounding Kennedy’s assassination.
Section 3
Summarize the goals of Johnson’s Great Society, including the Immigration Act of 1965.
Identify the reforms of the Warren Court.
Summarize the impact of the Great Society.

Chapter 21 – Civil Rights
Section 1
Explain how legalized segregation deprived African Americans of their rights as citizens.
Summarize civil rights legal activity and the response to the Plessy v Ferguson andBrown v. Board of Education cases.
Trace Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s civil rights activities, beginning with the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Describe the expansion of the civil rights movement.
Section 2
Identify the goal of the freedom riders.
Indentify the motives of the 1963 March on Washington.
Explain the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Section 3
Compare segregation in the North with segregation in the South.
Identify the leaders who shaped the Black Power movement.
Describe the reaction to the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Summarize the accomplishments of the civil rights movement.

Chapter 22 – The Vietnam War Years
Section 1
Summarize America’s reasons for supporting France in Vietnam, including the domino theory.
Explain how the United States became involved in the Vietnam conflict.
Section 2
Explain the reasons for the escalation of U.S. involvement in Vietnam.
Section 3
Explain the draft policies that led to the Vietnam War becoming a working-class war.
Describe the antiwar movement and the growing divisions in U.S. public opinion about the war.
Section 4
Describe the Tet offensive and its effect on the American public.
Explain the domestic turbulence of 1968.

Section 5
Describe Nixon’s policy of Vietnamization.
Explain the public’s reaction to the Vietnam War during Nixon’s presidency.
Describe the end of U.S. involvement and the final outcome in Vietnam.
Explain the war’s legacy and the reason for the War Powers Act.

Chapter 23 – An Era of Social Change
Section 1
Summarize the efforts of Latinos to secure civil rights and better treatment, including the work of Cesar Chavez.
Explain the efforts of Native Americans to secure reforms in government policies.
Section 2
Describe some of the early gains and losses of the women’s movement.
Section 3
Summarize the counterculture and its impact on society.

Chapter 24 – An Age of Limits
Section 1
Summarize Nixon’s plans to lead the nation on a more conservative course.
Explain Nixon’s southern strategy.
Describe the steps Nixon took to battle stagflation.
Summarize Nixon’s foreign policy approach and explain the importance of his visits to China and the Soviet Union.
Section 2
Summarize the Watergate scandal.
Explain the effects of Watergate.
Section 3
Summarize Ford’s efforts to confront economic problems and handle foreign policy.
Summarize Jimmy Carter’s approach to solving economic problems.
Summarize Carter’s achievements and failures in foreign policy matters.
Section 4
Identify key environment issues of the 1970s.

Chapter 25 – The Conservative Tide
Section 1
Identify the goals of the conservative movement.
Section 2
Summarize Reagan’s economic programs.
Section 3
Summarize national concerns about health, education, and urban problems.
Section 4
Identify changes in the Communist world that ended the Cold War.
Summarize U.S. actions taken to influence Central American and Caribbean affairs.
Explain U.S. Involvement in the Persian Gulf War.

Chapter 26 – The United States in Today’s World
Section 1
Describe Clinton’s stand on domestic issues.
Describe Clinton’s approach to foreign policy.
Describe the first months of the Bush administration.
Section 2
Describe changes resulting from a global economy.
Section 3
Summarize the growth of communications and scientific advances.
Section 4
Identify causes of urban flight.
Explain the impact of the aging of America.
Describe changing migration patterns and immigration policies

Thursday, April 27, 2017

9.3 Social Change for Women and Native Americans

Chapter 23 An Era for Social Change: Women and Native Americans Struggle for Equality

Directions: Read the paragraphs below, answer the questions that follow and post your answers.
Downloaded on  5/10/15 from: http://www.irwinator.com/126/wdoc190.htm 

Native Americans Seek Independence

In 1961 , 61 Native American groups came together in Chicago and drafted the Declaration of Indian Purpose. The document emphasized the role of determination of Native Americans to "choose our own way of life." It also called for an end to the "termination policy" set up in 1954 by President Eisenhower, which relocated Native Americans from isolated reservations into mainstream urban American life in an effort to alleviate the high levels of poverty and unemployment that the Native Americans were suffering from. 
Downloaded 5/11/15 from: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/05/national/05friedan.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Betty Friedman leads the movement

The Women's Movement Grows

The passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, and gender and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to deal with discrimination grievances. However, by 1966 some women argued that the EOC did not address women's claims to discrimination. So 28 women, including Betty Friedan, created the National Organization for Women (NOW) to advance women's goals. Now members pushed for the creation of child-care facilities that would enable mothers to pursue jobs and education. It also pressured the EEOC to enforce more vigorously the violations on gender discrimination in job hiring.

McDougal Littell, The Americans, 2003, pg.771, 778)

Thinking Through the History

1.)What group was founded specifically to address the grievances of women that were not adequately addressed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
2.) Which groups did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protect from discrimination?
3.) What right did Native American groups focus in the 1961 Declaration of Indian Purpose?
4.) How did the "termination policy" seek to alleviate high unemployment and poverty for the Native Americans?

9.2 Social Justice on the National Level

Social Justice on a National Level

downloaded from: http://www.paradigmproductions.org/film/filmstory.html on 5/4/2015

Defending the Weak: Cesar Chavez
Defending the weak and standing up for justice, was what lead Cesar Chavez to lead the nation to take a stand on the use of dangerous pesticides in the growing of grapes. In the 1980's in California, many died or were harmed as a result of farming and harvesting grapes that were exposed to the pesticides. The pesticides were intended to grow bigger and better grapes, but the cost of those grapes was devastating to humans.

Directions: Read the speech below written by Cesar Chavez.   Answer the questions that follow and post your answers.

I am speaking to you about our Wrath of Grapes Boycott.
Because I believe our greatest court, the court of last resort, is the American people. And I believe that once you have taken a few moments to hear this message you will concur in this verdict along with a million other North Americans who are already committed to the largest grape boycott in history.
The worth of humans is involved here.
I see us as one family. We cannot turn our backs on each other and our future. We farm workers are closest to food production. We were the first to recognize the serious health hazards of agriculture pesticides to both consumers and ourselves.
Twenty years ago over 17 million Americans united in a grape boycott campaign that transformed the simple act of refusing to buy grapes into a powerful and effective force against poverty and injustice. Through the combined strengths of a national boycott, California farm workers won many of the same rights as other workers--the right to organize and negotiate with growers.
But we also won a critical battle for all Americans. Our first contracts banned the use of DDT, DDE, Dieldrin on crops, years before the federal government acted.
Twenty years later, our contracts still seek to limit the spread of poison in our food and fields, but we need your help once again if we are to succeed.
A powerful self-serving alliance between the California governor and the 14 billion dollar agricultural industry has resulted in a systematic and reckless poisoning of not only California farm workers but of grape consumers throughout our nation and Canada.
The hard won law enacted in 1975 has been trampled beneath the feet of self-interest. Blatant violations of California labor laws are constantly ignored. And worst of all, the indiscriminate and even illegal use of dangerous pesticides has radically increased in the last decade causing illness, permanent disability and even death.
We must not allow the Governor of California and the selfish interests of California grape growers to threaten lives through-out North America.
We have known for many years that pesticides used in agriculture pollute the air, earth and water, contaminate animals and humans and are found in the tissue of newborn infants and mothers’ milk. This March, the New York Times reported that the Environmental Protection Agency finally considers pesticide pollution its most urgent problem noting virtually everyone is exposed to pesticides.
The Environmental Protection Agency experts have warned that
#1--Pesticide residue is being found in a growing number of food products.
#2--Some poisons registered for use in the last 30 years cause cancer, mutations and birth defects.
#3--Most chemicals on the market have insufficient and sometimes fraudulent test results.
#4--Underground water supplies of 23 states are already tainted and farm workers suffer some pesticide induced illness in alarming numbers.
Consumers must be alerted now that no one can actually define or measure so called safe exposure to residual poison that accumulates in the human body as environments differ and each person's tolerance is unique.

What might be safe statistically for the average healthy 40 year old male, might irreparably harm an elderly consumer, a child, or the baby of a pregnant mother.
What we do know absolutely is that human lives are worth more than grapes and that innocent looking grapes on the table may disguise poisonous residues hidden deep inside where washing cannot reach.
Let me share the frightening facts with you. Last July the New York Times and national television reported that nearly 1,000 California, Pacific Northwest, Alaskan, and Canadian consumers became ill as the result of eating watermelons tainted with the powerful insecticide Aldicarb, labeled the most acutely toxic pesticide registered in the United States. Yet Aldicarb cannot be legally used on watermelons.
In June local agriculture officials quarantined fields in Delano, California grape ranches because residues of the pesticide Orthene were found in the vineyards, yet Orthene cannot be legally used on table grapes.
And a new study shows pesticides used in growing may be responsible for the illness of over 300,000 of the nation's 4 million farm workers.
But of the 27 legal restricted toxic poisons currently used on grapes, at least 5 are potentially as dangerous or more hazardous to consumers and grape workers than deadly Aldicarb and Orthene.
Here are 5 major threats to your health that cling to the California table grapes.
Parathion and Phosdrin--are highly poisonous insecticides, similar to nerve gas, and are responsible for the majority of deaths and serious poisoning of farm workers. They cause birth defects and are carcinogens.
Captan--a proven cancer causing and birth defect producing agent. (Fungicide)
Dinoseb--a highly toxic herbicide that has caused worker deaths.
Methyl Bromide--a more potent mutagen (an agent affecting genetic material) than mustard gas and is highly poisonous and proven carcinogen.
Statistics and new articles do not relate the real cost, the human anguish that originates from poisons on our food. They do not tell the tragedies I personally learn of daily.
How can I explain these chemicals to 3 year old Amalia Larios who will never walk, born with a spinal defect due to pesticide exposure of her mother.
What statistics are important to Adrian Espinoza 7 years old and dying of cancer with 8 other children--whose only source of water was polluted with pesticides.
What headlines can justify the loss of irrigator Manuel Anaya's right hand, amputated due to recurrent infection from powerful herbicides added to the water he worked with in the fields.
How do we comfort the mother of maimed and stillborn infants, the parents who watch their teenage children sicken or die.
What report can be cited at the hospital beds I visit, at growing numbers of wakes I attend.
What court will hear the case of 32 year old Juan Chaboya, murdered by deadly chemicals in the freshly sprayed fields outside San Diego. His dead body dumped by the growers 45 miles away at a Tijuana clinic. What excuse for justice will we offer his 4 children and his widow if we do nothing.
Now is the time for all of us to stand as a family and demand a response in the name of decency. Too much is at stake. This is a battle that none of us can afford to lose because it is a fight for the future of America. It is a fight we can win and it is a fight that everyone can join.
Add your voice to our demands of decency as we call for
#1--A ban on the 5 most dangerous pesticides used in grape production--Parathion, Phosdrin, Dinoseb, Methyl Bromide and Captan.
#2--A joint UFW/grower testing program for poisonous residues on grapes sold in stores with the results made public.
#3--Free and fair elections for farm workers to decide whether to organize and negotiate contracts limiting the use of dangerous poisons in the fields.
#4--Good faith bargaining.

Until these demands of decency are met we will carry the message of the Wrath of Grapes Boycott from state to state. 10 years ago, 12% of the country boycotted grapes and the growers were forced to accountability. California Governor Deukmejian and agribusiness cannot withstand the judgment of outraged consumers who refused to purchase their tainted products.
Every month over 1 million grape consumers like yourselves receive our message across North America. State and federal law makers, mayors and city councils, religious and labor leaders, students and senior citizens, mothers and fathers, rich and poor, concerned individuals in every walk of life have endorsed the Wrath of Grapes Boycott. With their commitment and their donations, they in turn have reached out to their friends and relatives to help bind the foundation of a growing coalition of decency.
Now I am reaching out to you for help because consumers and farm workers must stand together as one family if we are to be heard. I am not asking you to give up wine or raisins. I am asking you to give us your commitment and valuable support.
I am asking you to join us now and be counted to join the growing family of individuals who will boycott grapes until the demands of decency have been met.
And hard as it is for me to ask for money, I am asking you to contribute to the cause--$100, $50, $15 whatever you can afford. Whatever you would have spent on grapes this year. Insure that every week 1 million more consumers will know the truth.
You have my personal pledge that every cent of your contributions will be spent on the Wrath of Grapes Campaign bringing this message into every home in America because this message is the source of our combined strength.
My friends, the wrath of grapes is a plague born of selfish men that is indiscriminately and undeniably poisoning us all. Our only protection is to boycott the grapes and our only weapon is the truth. If we unite we can only triumph for ourselves, for our children and for their children.
We look forward to hearing from you soon.
downloaded from http://www.emersonkent.com/speeches/wrath_of_grapes_boycott.htm  5/1/2015


1.) What important role did Cesar Chavez play in defending the rights of others?

2.) What type of event did he help promote to gain negotiating power on a national level?

3.) Describe how economic pressures were used to affect change. 

9.1 The Containment of Communism

Moving Toward Conflict:

The domino theory was a strategy of the United States under President Eisenhower  of containment.  It is also the main reason for entering the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War was a result of the national strategy of containment

Directions: Read the following and answer the questions. Posts your responses.

To stop the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, the United States used its military to support South Vietnam. America became involved in Vietnam in 1950, during the French Indochina War, in which France sought to reestablish its rule in Vietnam after World War II. In an effort to strengthen its tie with France and to help fight the spread of communism, the United States provided the French with military and financial support. Nonetheless, the Ho Chi Minh, drove the French out of North Vietnam and set up a communist government at the capital of Hanoi. The anti-communist nationals controlled south Vietnam. Vietnam was separated at the 17th parallel line, by north and south and communist vs. anticommunist.  Due to France's retreat, the U.S. took an active role to stop the spread of communism. During a news conference in 1954, President Eisenhower explained the domino theory, in which he compared the countries on the brink of communism to a row of dominoes waiting to fall one after another. So in order to help stabilize the anticommunist government of South Vietnam, the U.S. sent military aide.

1.) What was the United States' main goal in Vietnam?
2.) How would you best explain the domino theory?
3.)Why did Congress pass the War Power's Act?

8.3-8.4 Civil Rights Movement

Practices in America related to race: "Separate but Equal"

Separate but equalDirections: Read about the following landmark court cases listed below. Answer the 3 questions posted below regarding the court cases. Post your answers.

In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the Supreme Court of the United States of America made the decision to uphold segregation on the basis of race. The landmark court case involved intrastate railway transportation and upheld the doctrine of separate but equal, in other words segregating people on the basis of race was considered fair and equal treatment. Separating people in train cars based on race was therefore considered lawful. This court case affirmed the legality of racial segregation an prompted the passage of Jim Crow laws.

Brown v. the Board of Education was another landmark United States Supreme court case related to the doctrine of separate but equal. The Court overturned the practice of separate but equal in the ruling which declared all state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision overturned the ruling in the Plessy v.Ferguson. As a result, racial segregation was ruled a violation of the the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.  

Answer the following questions:
1.) What affirmed the legality of racial segregation and prompted the passage of Jim Crow laws?  
2.) What doctrine relating to public education and the practice of separate but equal was overturned by the Supreme Court decision in the 1950's?
3.) Name one legacy of the civil rights movement that has been challenged in recent years.

Friday, March 24, 2017

8.1-8.2 President Truman and The Cold War

The Cold War: The Spread of Communism and The Truman Doctrine

The Americans, Chapter 18 

The Truman Doctrine is noted as the American policy of ‘containment’ –  President Truman's 1947 speech is sometimes called ‘Truman’s containment speech’   In this respect, the most famous passage from Truman’s speech has become:

Directions: Read the famous quote from the 1947 Truman Speech and then answer the following questions. Post your answers.

1.What does containment imply?

2. Recall your reading about the Cold War from the textbook. Why was communism considered a threat to the freedoms of the U.S. and the world? 
3. Why did the Soviet Union set up the Berlin blockade around Eastern Germany?
4.What was the main goal of the Truman Doctrine in respect to the threat of the spread of communism?